Top DevOps Interview Questions and Answers for 2023

Introduction:

Are you a DevOps engineer or thinking about becoming one? If that’s the case, you’ve come to the correct place. In this blog post, I have listed the top possible questions asked in interviews for roles in DevOps. We’ll also provide you with some tips on how to answer these questions. So you can ace your following interview and successfully get that dream job.

If you want to improve your DevOps skills thoughtfully and systematically and become certified as a DevOps Engineer, we would be glad to help you. Once you finish the DevOps Courses, we guarantee that you will be capable of handling a variety of DevOps opportunities available in the industry.

What are the requirements to become a DevOps Engineer?

Organizations will look for a clear set of skills when filling out DevOps roles. The most important of these are:

  • Experience with infrastructure automation tools like Ansible, Chef, Puppet, SaltStack, or Windows PowerShell DSC.
  • Fluency in web languages like Python, Ruby, or Java.
  • Interpersonal skills that allow you to communicate and cooperate with people from different teams and jobs.

If you have the above skills, you are ready to begin preparing for your DevOps interview! If not, don’t worry – our DevOps Courses will help you master DevOps.

These are the most common questions asked in a DevOps job interview:

Q1. What is DevOps?

DevOps is a term for a set of practices that combine software development (Dev) and information technology operations (Ops) to streamline the delivery of software products and services.

Development and operations teams work together in a DevOps environment to complete tasks and projects more efficiently. This collaboration often leads to faster software delivery, improved quality and reliability, and better communication and collaboration between teams.

Q2. What is the need for DevOps?

As technology progresses, the need for DevOps has become increasingly important. DevOps is a set of practices that aim to automate the process of software delivery and infrastructure management.

With the help of DevOps, businesses can speed up the software delivery process while improving the quality of their software products. In addition, DevOps can help reduce the risk of errors and improve the overall stability of IT systems.

There are many benefits of DevOps, but the three most important ones are:

1. Improved efficiency

2. Increased quality

3. Reduced risk

Q3. How is DevOps different from agile methodology?

DevOps is a software development approach emphasizing collaboration between development and operations teams. In a DevOps model, both teams work together throughout the software development lifecycle, from planning to development to testing to deployment.

Agile software development methodology focuses on iterative, incremental, small, and rapid software releases and customer feedback. It solves gaps and conflicts between the customer and developers.
DevOps solves gaps and conflicts between the Developers and IT Operations.

Q4. Which are the top DevOps tools?
The following are some of the most popular DevOps tools:
 
1) Git: Version Control System tool
2) Jenkins: Continuous Integration tool
3) Puppet, Chef, Ansible: Configuration Management and Deployment tools
4) Selenium: Continuous Testing tool
5) Docker: Containerization tool
6) Nagios: Continuous Monitoring tool
Q5. What is Jenkins?
Jenkins is an open-source automation tool that helps developers build, test, and deploy their applications. And also allows developers to integrate new changes into the codebase and automatically push the changes to the testing and production servers.
 
Q6. What is CI/CD Pipeline?
 
A CI/CD pipeline is a set of automation tools that help software developers deliver code changes to their users faster and more reliably.
The CI part of the pipeline automatically builds and tests code changes, while the CD part automatically deploys those changes to production.
Developers typically commit code changes to a version control system, which triggers the CI portion of the pipeline. The CI tools then build and test the code; if everything passes, the CD tools deploy the code to production.
CI/CD pipelines help developers ship code changes faster and with fewer errors.
 
Q7. What is Continuous Integration?

Continuous integration (CI) automatically integrates code changes from multiple developers into a shared repository.
Continuous integration (CI)  can be used to automatically build and test code changes every time a change is made. This allows developers to detect errors quickly and avoid potential problems later in the software development cycle.

Q8. What is Continuous Delivery?

In continuous delivery, all code changes are automatically deployed to the test or production environments after the build is complete. Some examples of changes include feature additions, configuration changes, and error fixes. By automating the delivery of new code to users, CD ensures a safe, quick, sustainable process.

Q9. What is Continuous Deployment?

The most critical stage of the pipeline is continuous deployment. By following this practice, you can release all changes that have passed all stages of the production pipeline to your customers on time. Code changes can be made live much more quickly at this stage because there is little human interaction. In addition, continuous deployment allows you to accelerate your feedback loop with your customers and relieve pressure on your team since “release days” are no longer needed. Minutes after finishing their work, developers see their work go live.

Q10. What are the CI/CD Pipeline stages?

There are four stages of a CI/CD pipeline:
 1) Source Stage
2) Build Stage
3) Test Stage
4) Deploy Stage

Q11. How does a CI/CD Pipeline work?

A CI/CD pipeline is a set of automated processes allowing you to take code from development to production. This means that the pipeline will automatically build, test and deploy the changes whenever the code is changed or updated, ensuring that the code is always up-to-date.
The typical flow of a CI/CD pipeline goes like this:
1. A developer makes a code change and commits it to the version control system.
2. The CI server picks up the code change and triggers a build.
3. The build process runs unit tests and generates a build artifact.
4. The CD server picks up the build artifact and deploys it to a staging environment.
5. A tester or developer performs manual or automated tests on the staging environment.
6. If the tests pass, the CD server deploys the code to the production environment.

Q12. What are the different types of Pipelines in Jenkins?

Different types of Jenkins pipelines are:
●       CI/CD pipeline
●       Scripted pipeline
●       Declarative pipeline

Q13. How do you set up a Jenkins job?

To create a Jenkins job, follow these steps:
1) Select a New item from the menu
2) Next, enter a name for the job and select “Pipeline” job type.
3) Click on OK to create a new job
4) The next page will allow you to configure your job.

Q14. Name any more Continuous Integration tools other than Jenkins.

1) TeamCity
2) Bamboo
3) GitLab CI
4) Circle CI

Q15. What commands do you use to start Jenkins manually?

You may start Jenkins manually by using one of the following commands:

1) (Jenkins_url)/restart: Forces a restart without waiting for builds to complete
2) (Jenkin_url)/safeRestart: Allows all running builds to complete

Q16. What is the Version Control System?

Version control systems are software tools that report changes to the code and integrate these changes with the current code. As the developer frequently changes the code, these tools help integrate the new code smoothly without interfering with the work of other team members. Along with integration, it will test the new code to avoid problems.

Q17. What is Git?

Git is a distributed version control system mainly used to track the changes in the source code during software development. It handles a collection of files or a project that changes over time. It stores the information in a data structure called the repository.

Q18. What are the advantages of using Git?

1) Free and open-source: No need to purchase; it can be used anywhere.
2) Git is easy to learn and use.
3) The network performance and disk utilization are excellent
4) For one repository, we can have only one directory of Git
5) Easy branching: Git branches are easy and cheap to merge. Every small change to your code creates a new branch.
6) Git is very flexible. It can be used for a wide range of projects, from personal projects to large-scale enterprise projects.

Q19. What is the difference between Git and GitHub?

Git and GitHub are two popular tools used by developers. Both are used for code management, but they have different purposes.
●       Git is a version control system that helps developers manage their code changes. It allows them to track changes, revert to previous versions, and work collaboratively on code.
●       GitHub is a platform that allows developers to share their code with others. It also provides tools for developers to manage their projects and collaborate with others.

Q20. What is the git push command?

The git push command is used to push commits from a local repository to a remote repository.
For example, to push your local changes to the master branch of the origin repository, you would run the following command:
 
git push origin master
Q21. What is the git pull command?

The git pull command is for fetching and downloading content from a remote repository and integrating it with a local repository.
For example, if you wanted to pull changes from the master branch of a remote repository, you would use this command:
 
git pull origin master
 
Q22. What is the function of the git clone?

Cloning a repository creates a local copy of the remote repository. The git clone command creates a copy of an existing Git repository. This is useful if you want to contribute to a project or back up your repository.

Q23. What is the use of ‘git log’?

git log is a Git command that allows you to view the commit history of a repository. This history can be filtered by a number of different criteria, such as author, date, and commit message.

Q24.  What is the function of ‘git rm’?

‘git rm’ is a command that removes files from a git repository.
This command is typically used to remove unwanted files before committing a change and directories from a git repository.

Q25. What is a Git repository?

A Git repository is a location where all the Git files are stored. These files can either be stored on the local or remote repository.

Q26. Explain some basic Git commands.
Command  Purpose
git initUsed to create a new  git repository
git cloneUsed to copy a code repository from a remote server to your local machine.
git addIt is used to add one or more files to the staging area.
git commitCommits changes to the git repository
git statusIt shows the status of the current git repository
git branchLists create or delete branches
git mergeMerges branches together
git pushPushes changes to a remote git repository
git pullPulls changes from a remote git repository
git checkoutChecks out a branch or file
git mvMove or rename a file
git rmRemove files from the working directory
git logShow commit logs

Q27. What is Docker?

Docker is a containerization tool that allows developers to create, deploy, and run applications within a container. A container is a self-contained software unit that includes everything needed to run an application, such as code, runtime, system tools, system libraries, etc.

Q28. What is Docker Container?

Docker containers are lightweight, stand-alone, executable packages of software that include everything needed to run an application, such as code, runtime, system libraries, system tools,  etc.

Q29. What is a Docker image?

A Docker image is a read-only template that contains a set of instructions for creating a Docker container. It includes everything needed to run an application–the code, a runtime, dependencies, environment variables, and configuration files.

Q30. What is Dockerfile?

A Dockerfile is a text file containing all the instructions a user may use on the command line to create an image. Using a Dockerfile, users can create and deploy new images.

Q31. What is Docker Swarm?

Docker swarm is a container orchestration tool that allows you to manage and deploy your containers across multiple hosts. With swarm, you can easily create a scalable and highly available container environment.

Q32. How would you list all of the containers currently running?

If you want to list all of the containers currently running, you can use the ‘docker ps’ command. This will give you a list of all the running containers and some basic information about each one.

Q33. How to stop and restart the Docker container?

If you want to stop and restart the Docker container, you can use the “docker stop <container ID>” and “docker start <container ID>” commands.

First, you’ll need to find the container ID of the container you want to stop. You can do this by running the “docker ps” command.

Q34. How many containers can run per host?

The number of containers that can run on a single host depends on a few factors, including the host’s CPU and memory resources and the size and number of containers. Generally, a host can support a few hundred containers.

Q35. What is the difference between the ADD and COPY commands in a Dockerfile?

Two key differences exist between the ADD and COPY commands in a Dockerfile. The first is that ADD can be used to fetch files from remote locations, whereas COPY can only be used to copy files from the build context. The second difference is that ADD automatically unpacks compressed files, whereas COPY does not.

Q36. What are some basic Docker commands?

Some basic Docker commands are:

1) docker push: pushes an image or repository to a registry

2) docker ps: List all of the running Docker containers

3) docker build: Build a Docker image from a Dockerfile

4) docker run:  Runs a container from an image

5) docker pull: Pulls an image or repository from a registry

6) docker start: Starts one or more Docker containers

7) docker stop: Stops one or more running Docker containers

8) docker search: Searches for an image in the Docker hub

9) docker commit: Commits a new image

Q37. What is Ansible?

Ansible is an open-source IT Configuration Management, Deployment & Orchestration tool. It is used to set up and manage infrastructure and applications. It enables users to deploy and update applications using SSH without installing an agent on a remote system.

Q38. What is Ansible Playbook?

Ansible Playbook is a configuration management tool used to manage server configurations and deployments. It is written in the YAML format and consists of a series of rules or tasks that need to be executed on a remote server.

Q39. What is Ansible Galaxy?

This is a tool bundled with Ansible to create a base directory structure. Galaxy is a website that lets users find and share Ansible content. You can use this command to download roles from the website:

$ ansible-galaxy install username.role_name

Q40. What is an ad hoc command?

An ad hoc command is a simple, one-time command used to perform a specific task. Ad hoc

Commands are often used when you fix a problem or quickly perform a quick action without using a playbook.

Q41. What are Ansible tasks?

Ansible tasks are a set of instructions or commands you want Ansible to execute on your remote servers. They are written in YAML syntax and are typically used to automate server configuration or application deployment.

Q42. Which protocol does Ansible use to connect with Linux and Windows?

For Linux, Ansible uses the SSH protocol to communicate with Linux systems.

For Windows, Ansible uses the WinRM protocol to communicate with Windows systems.

Q43. What is a YAML file and how do we use it in Ansible?

A YAML file is a text file that contains data in a structured format. YAML stands for “YAML Ain’t Markup Language.”

Ansible uses YAML because it is very easy to read and write. It is also easy to understand for computers.

In Ansible, we use YAML files to describe our infrastructure. We can use YAML files to describe our servers, networks, software, and services.

Q44. What are Ansible Variables?

Ansible variables help you define and customize your playbooks. They can specify configuration settings, user options, and other data. You can use variables in your playbooks to make them more flexible and reusable.

Ansible variables are used to store values that can be used in playbooks and templates.

There are two types of variables in Ansible:

 1. play vars: these are variables that are set at the start of a play

2. host vars: these are variables that are set for a specific host

Q45. What are the Ansible Server requirements?

  • To run Ansible, you need a Linux server with SSH access. This can be a remote server or a local VM.
  • The server should have a minimum of 2GB of RAM.
  • And it requires a python 2.6 version or higher.

Q46. What are Ansible Vaults, and why are they used?

Ansible Vault is a feature that allows you to keep all of your secrets secure. They can store sensitive data, such as passwords, API keys, and other confidential information.

They are encrypted using a strong cipher so that even if someone gains access to the vault file, they will not be able to read the contents.

Vaults are essential to securing Ansible playbooks and ensuring that only authorized users can access sensitive data.

Q47. What is a Chef?

Chef is a Configuration management tool that maintains the infrastructure by writing code rather than using a manual method so that it can be automated, tested, and deployed very quickly. Chef has Client-server architecture and supports multiple platforms like Windows, Ubuntu, Centos, and Solaris. It can also be integrated with cloud platforms like AWS, Google Cloud Platform, Open Stack, etc.

Q48. What is Recipe in Chef?

A recipe in Chef is a set of instructions that tells Chef how to configure and manage a server. Recipes are written in a Ruby DSL (domain-specific language). They are stored in files called cookbooks.

Recipes can be used to install and update software, create and manage files, and much more. In essence, a recipe is a way to automate server administration tasks.

Q49. What is the difference between a recipe and a cookbook in Chef?

A chef recipe is a combination of resources for configuring a software package. A chef’s recipe is also ideal for configuring a certain part of the infrastructure. However, a Cookbook is a collection of Chef Recipes. Also, a Chef cookbook contains supporting information that improves the ease of configuration management

Q50. Explain the use of a Knife in Chef.

A knife is a command-line tool that acts as an interface between the Chef Workstation and Chef Server. It helps the Chef Workstation communicate the content of its chef-repository directory with a Chef Server. Chef-Workstation contains the chef-repository directory where cookbooks, roles, data bags, and environments are stored.

With Knife commands, users can manage (create, delete, list, edit) nodes, roles, JSON data storage, environments, cookbooks and recipes, and cloud resources using Knife plug-ins.

Q51. Explain metadata.rb in Chef.

When you create a cookbook, one of the files that is generated is called metadata.rb. This file contains important information about the Cookbook, such as its name, version, maintainer, and dependencies.

The metadata.rb file is available in Cookbook’s directory. When Cookbook is uploaded to Chef Infra Server, or command knife cookbook metadata is run, metadata.rb file gets compiled and saved as JSON data in the Cookbook.

Q52. Why are SSL certificates used in Chef?

  • SSL certificates are used between the Chef server and the client to verify that each node has access to the correct data.
  • Every node has a pair of private and public keys. The public key is stored on the Chef server.
  • When an SSL certificate is sent to the server, it will contain the node’s private key.
  • The server compares this to the public key to identify the node and give the node access to the required data.

Q53. What is Puppet?

Puppet is a free, open-source configuration management tool that helps you automate your infrastructure’s provisioning, configuration, and deployment.

Q54. What are Manifest files in Puppet?

Manifest files in Puppet are used to define the desired state of your system. In other words, they specify what resources should be present on your system and what state those resources should be in.

Q55. Which is better Chef or Puppet?

If you’re looking for a more declarative and less code-heavy tool, then Puppet is probably a better choice. Or, if you’re looking for a tool that gives you more flexibility and control, Chef is a better bet.

Q56. Why puppet is used in DevOps?

Puppet is a  configuration management tool that can help DevOps teams automate the provisioning and configuration of infrastructure. Puppet can help teams to easily and rapidly deploy changes to their environment while ensuring consistent and reliable results.

Puppet is also used to manage containers, as well as orchestrate and manage the deployment of applications.

Q57. What is Puppet Kick?

Puppet kick is a tool used by Puppet administrators to trigger Puppet runs on remote nodes. It can be used to trigger a Puppet run manually or to schedule a Puppet run in advance.

Q58. How to upgrade Puppet and Facter?

You can upgrade Puppet and Facter through your operating system (OS) package management system. You can do this through Puppet Labs’ public repositories or the vendor’s repository.

Q59. What is Puppet Labs?

Puppet Labs is a leading provider of configuration management software. Their products help organizations automate, keeping their systems and applications up-to-date and making it easier to deliver applications and services at scale.

Q60. What is Facter?

The Facter is a system profiling library that gathers system information during a Puppet run. The Facter offers your information regarding the IP address, kernel version, CPU, and others.

Q61. What are the three primary sources that puppet uses for compiling the catalog?

  • External data
  • Agent-provided data
  • Puppet manifests

Q62. What is codedir in Puppet?

Codedir is a Puppet setting that specifies the directory where Puppet code is stored. This setting is important because it tells Puppet where to find your manifests and modules. By default, the codedir is set to /etc/puppetlabs/code.

Q63. Where does codedir locate Linux and Windows?

The codedir is located at

  • Linux: /etc/dir/PuppetLabs/code
  • Windows: C:\ProgramData\PuppetLabs\puppet\etc

Q64. What is Kubernetes?

Kubernetes is an open-source container orchestration tool that automates tasks such as managing, monitoring, scaling, and deploying containerized applications.

Q65. What is Container Orchestration?

Container orchestration is the process of automating the deployment, management, and scaling of containerized applications. This can include tasks such as container deployment, container networking, container storage, container security, and so on.

Q66. What are the features of Kubernetes?

1) Kubernetes can automatically discover and load balance your application services across a cluster.

2) Kubernetes will automatically pack your application containers onto the most efficient nodes in the cluster based on available resources.

3) Kubernetes can automatically restart failed containers and replicas and perform rolling updates to ensure that your applications are always up-to-date.

4) Kubernetes can automatically mount and manage persistent storage for your applications.

5) Kubernetes can help you manage and maintain your application’s configuration across multiple environments.

Q67. What is Google Container Engine?

Google Container Engine is a powerful and easy-to-use container orchestration tool from Google. It makes it easy to deploy and manage containers at scale on any Google Cloud Platform (GCP) infrastructure.

This Kubernetes-based engine supports only those clusters which run within Google’s public cloud services.

68. What is Minikube?

Minikube is a tool used to run Kubernetes locally. Minikube runs a single-node Kubernetes cluster inside a virtual machine on your laptop.

Q69. What is Kubectl?

Kubectl is a command line interface (CLI) for Kubernetes. It allows you to run commands against Kubernetes clusters. You can use kubectl to deploy applications, manage cluster resources, and inspect and view logs.

Q70. What is Kubelet?

Kubelet is a Kubernetes agent that runs on each node in the cluster. It is responsible for maintaining a set of pods and ensuring that the pods are healthy and running.

Q71. What are the different components of Kubernetes Architecture?

The Kubernetes Architecture has mainly two components – the master node and the worker node. As shown in the diagram below, the master and the worker nodes have many inbuilt components within them. The master node has the kube-api server, kube-controller-manager, kube-scheduler, etcd. At the same time, the worker node has kubelet and kube-proxy running on each node.

·        Kubernetes Master: This is the control plane of the Kubernetes cluster and is responsible for orchestration and management.
·        Kubernetes Nodes: These are the worker machines in the Kubernetes cluster and are used to run containerized applications.
·        kube-proxy: This is a network proxy that helps to provide a single point of entry into the Kubernetes cluster.
·        kube-api server: The primary entry point for all Kubernetes API requests.
·        etcd: This is a highly available key-value store used to store the Kubernetes configuration data.
·        kube-scheduler: This is a component that schedules the deployment of containerized applications on the Kubernetes nodes.
·        kube-controller-manager: This is a daemon that runs on the Kubernetes master and is responsible for managing the controllers.

Q72. What is Kube-proxy?

Kube-proxy is a network proxy and load balancer solution. It is responsible for routing traffic to the container depending on IP and the port number. It is used to provide service abstraction used with other networking operations.

Q73. How to run Kubernetes locally?

Kubernetes can be run locally using the Minikube tool, which is a lightweight Kubernetes distribution that can be run on a single node cluster in a virtual machine (VM) on the computer.  As a result, it is perfect for users who are just getting started with Kubernetes.

Q74. List out some important kubectl commands

The important kubectl commands that every Kubernetes user should know.

1. kubectl get: This command is used to get information about Kubernetes resources.

2. kubectl describe: This command gives you more information about a specific resource.

3. kubectl apply: This command is used to apply changes to a resource.

4. kubectl delete: This command is used to delete a resource.

5. kubectl scale: This command is used to scale a resource.

6. kubectl rollout: This command is used to rollout changes to a resource.

7. kubectl exec: This command is used to execute a command in a container.

8. kubectl port-forward: This command is used to forward traffic to a specific port.

9. kubectl logs: This command is used to get the logs of a container.

Q75. Why uses kube-apiserver?

kube-apiserver is the central component of a Kubernetes cluster, responsible for all the API calls, that is used to validate and configure API objects, which include controllers, services, etc. It provides the front end to the cluster’s shared region, using which components interact.

Q76. What is ContainerCreating pod?

A ContainerCreating pod can be scheduled on a node but can’t start up properly.

Q77. What is Kubernetes proxy service?

Kubernetes proxy service is a service that runs on the node and helps in making it available to an external host.

Q78. Why use a namespace in Kubernetes?

Namespaces in Kubernetes are used to divide cluster resources between users. It helps the environment where more than one user spreads projects or teams and provides a scope of resources.

Q79. Define Kubernetes controller manager

The Kubernetes controller manager is a daemon used for core control loops, garbage collection, and namespace creation. It allows the running of more than one process on the master node. The controller manager is Kubernetes’ primary process and is responsible for many things, such as:

– Keeping track of the cluster state

– Adding or removing nodes from the cluster

– Performing health checks on nodes

– Handling node failures

– Updating the routing table

– And more!

Q80. What is the role of a Load Balancer in Kubernetes?

A load balancer is responsible for distributing traffic evenly between the different nodes in a Kubernetes cluster. This ensures that no single node is overloaded and that the application can handle the load.

 In Kubernetes, as shown in the above figure, all the incoming traffic lands to a single IP address on the load balancer, which is a way to expose your service to outside the internet, which routes the incoming traffic to a particular pod (via service) using an algorithm known as round-robin. Even if any pod goes down, load balances are notified, so the traffic is not routed to that unavailable node. Thus load balancers in Kubernetes are responsible for distributing a set of tasks (incoming traffic) to the pods
Q81. What is Blue-Green Deployment?
Blue-green deployment is an application release model that gradually transfers user traffic from a previous version of an app or microservice to a nearly identical new release. Both of which are running in production. The old version can be called blue environment. And while The new version can be known as the green environment.
Q82. What is Nagios?
Nagios is a powerful monitoring tool that helps you keep track of your critical systems and infrastructure. It can monitor your network, applications, servers, and more and alert you if something goes wrong.
Q83. What are some of the features of Nagios?
Nagios can monitor server performance, application performance, and services. It can also be used to monitor network traffic and generate reports. Nagios can be configured to send alerts to administrators when problems are detected.
Q84. What port numbers will Nagios use to monitor clients?
Nagios will use ports 5666, 5667 and 5668 to monitor clients. These are the default ports that Nagios uses for communication. You must allow traffic on these ports if a firewall is enabled on your Nagios server.
Q85. What is the difference between Active And Passive Check in Nagios?
The major difference between Active and Passive checks is that Active checks are initiated by the Nagios server. The server sends a request to the client, and the client responds with data. This type of check is useful for monitoring services that are not accessible from the Nagios server.
Passive checks are initiated by the client. The client sends data to the Nagios server, and the server does not send a request. This type of check is useful for monitoring services that are accessible from the Nagios server and initiated by the monitored host.
Q86. What is the use of nagios.cfg file in Nagios?
The nagios.cfg file is the main configuration file for Nagios. It contains directives and parameters that control various aspects of Nagios, such as host and service monitoring, notification settings, etc.
This file defines the Nagios users and groups for which the instances run. It contains the paths to the individual object configuration files, such as commands, contacts, templates, etc.
Q87. What is Prometheus?
Prometheus is an open-source monitoring tool that can help you monitor and improve your website’s performance. It tracks different metrics, such as page load times and error rates. By understanding how your website performs, you can make changes to improve its speed and reliability.
Q88. What is Grafana?
Grafana is a free and open-source visualization tool that provides various dashboards, charts, graphs, and alerts for a particular data source. Grafana allows us to query, explore metrics, visualize, and set alerts for the data sources. We can also create our dynamic dashboard for visualization and monitoring. We can save the dashboards and share them with other members also. We can also import external dashboards.
Q89. What is Grafana dashboard?
A Grafana dashboard displays your metrics, panels, and logs data in the form of visualizations that may take the form of tables, time series, timelines, stat, gauge, bar, and pie charts.
Q90. Where does Grafana save dashboards?
The folder /var/lib/grafana is the default location where all Grafana dashboards are saved.
Q91. What is InfluxDB used for?
InfluxDB is used for storing and retrieving time series data and is commonly used by those who wish to perform operations monitoring as well as logs and metrics analysis.
Q92. What is Grafana tempo?
Grafana Tempo is an open-source, easy-to-use, and high-volume distributed tracing backend. Tempo is inexpensive, requiring only object storage to operate, and it is deeply integrated with Grafana, Prometheus, and Loki.
Q93. What is Selenium?
Selenium is a web application testing tool. It supports various browsers, including Firefox, Chrome, Internet Explorer, Opera, and Safari. Selenium can test web applications on different platforms, such as Windows, Linux, and Mac.
Q94. What is Selenese? Explain different types of Selenium commands.
Selenese is a command language used for running Selenium scripts. It is similar to other scripting languages but has its own unique syntax. There are three types of Selenium commands:
1.     Actions: These commands interact directly with web applications.
2.     Accessors: These commands allow the user to store values in a user-defined variable.
3.     Assertions: These commands check that a certain condition is proper, such as checking that the text “Welcome!” is present on the page.
Q95. What is Junit?
It is a Java-based unit testing framework introduced by Apache. It is an open-source Framework that offers integrations with IDEs such as Eclipse, IntelliJ, etc., allowing you to execute unit testing quickly.
Q96. What is the difference between assert and verify commands?
Assert: Assert command checks if the provided condition is true or false. Let’s assume we want to know if the provided element is on the web page. If the condition is true, the program control will proceed to the next test step; if the condition is false, then the execution will stop, and no more tests will be executed.
Verify: Verify command checks if the given condition is true or false. Whether the condition is true or false, the program execution doesn’t stop, i.e., any failure during verification does not stop the execution, and all the test steps would be executed.
Q97. How can we fetch the page source in Selenium?
In Selenium, we can fetch the page source by using the driver.getTitle() command. This function returns a string containing the page source.
Q98. How to handle hidden elements in Selenium WebDriver?
Using the JavaScript executor, we can handle hidden elements-
(JavascriptExecutor(driver))
.executeScript(“document.getElementsByClassName(locator).click();”);
Q99. What is Selenium Grid?
Selenium Grid is a tool used for running tests in parallel on multiple machines. This is especially useful for tests that need to be run on different browsers or operating systems. With Selenium Grid, you can run tests on a large number of machines at the same time, which can save you a lot of time and effort.
Q100. What is a hub in the Selenium Grid?
A hub is a central point in the Selenium grid that all the tests run through. It’s responsible for receiving requests from the test scripts and then forwarding them to the appropriate nodes.

Summary:

These are some of the most common DevOps interview questions and answers you might come across while attending an interview. If you are someone who has recently started your career in DevOps, you can take up our online courses and projects that will validate your knowledge and skills needed to be an expert in the field.

All the best for your interview!

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